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Falsification by private individual, Revised Penal Code

1. Concept

Art. 172. Falsification by private individual and use of falsified documents. – The penalty of prisión correccional in its medium and maximum periods and a fine of not more than One million pesos (₱1,000,000) shall be imposed upon:
1. Any private individual who shall commit any of the falsifications enumerated in the next preceding article in any public or official document or letter of exchange or any other kind of commercial document;
2. Any person who, to the damage of a third party, or with the intent to cause such damage, shall in any private document commit any of the acts of falsification enumerated in the next preceding article; and
3. Any person who shall knowingly introduce in evidence in any judicial proceeding or to the damage of another or who, with the intent to cause such damage, shall use any of the false documents embraced in the next preceding article, or in any of the foregoing subdivisions of this article, shall be punished by the penalty next lower in degree. (Act No. 3815, Revised Penal Code)

2. Mode of commission

Elements of the offense:

1st Mode

1) The offender commits any of the falsifications enumerated in the next preceding article in any public or official document or letter of exchange or any other kind of commercial document.

2nd Mode

1) The offender commits commit on any private document any of the acts of falsification enumerated in the next preceding article; and,

2) Such acts result to the damage of a third party, or with the intent to cause such damage.

References

Title 4 – Crimes Against Public Interest, Book 2, Revised Penal Code

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