Article 231. Any judicial or executive officer who shall openly refuse to execute the judgment, decision or order of any superior authority made within the scope of the jurisdiction of the latter and issued with all the legal formalities, shall suffer the penalties of arresto mayor in its medium period to prision correccional in its minimum period, temporary special disqualification in its maximum period and a fine not exceeding 1,000 pesos. (Act No. 3815, Revised Penal Code)
a. Public officer
“Public officer” –refers to any person who, by direct provision of the law, popular election or appointment by competent authority, shall take part in the performance of public functions in the Government of the Philippine Islands, of shall perform in said Government or in any of its branches public duties as an employee, agent or subordinate official, of any rank or class, for purposes of Titles 1 to 6, Book 2 of the Revised Penal Code. (Article 203, Act No. 3815, Revised Penal Code)
2. Mode of commission
Elements of the offense:
1) The offender is a judicial or executive officer; and
2) He openly refuses to execute the judgment, decision or order of any superior authority made within the scope of the jurisdiction of the latter and issued with all the legal formalities.
⦁ Title 7 – Crimes Committed by Public Officers, Book 2, Revised Penal Code
/Updated: December 30, 2022
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