Recidivism, as an aggravating circumstance under the Revised Penal Code – refers to the circumstance when the offender must have a previous conviction by final judgment of another crime in the same title of the Revised Penal Code prior to the arraignment of the present crime.
a. Legal basis
Article 14. Aggravating circumstances. - The following are aggravating circumstances:
9. That the accused is a recidivist.
(Revised Penal Code)
People v. De Jesus, En Banc, G.R. No. L-45198, October 31, 1936m Per Diaz, J.:
• We should not lose sight of the fact that when the Legislature incorporated the provision relative to habitual delinquency into the Revised Penal Code, it was aware — this, at least, is the presumption of law — that recidivism was, as it continues to be in the majority of cases to this date, an aggravating circumstance the effect of which, as the name itself implies, is to aggravate the criminal responsibility of the delinquent. But unlike other circumstances, as treachery, evident premeditation, sex, craft, relationship, public position, dwelling, not to mention several others so as not to be tedious, which may be aggravating, ...
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