• “things done between strangers ought not to injure those who are not parties to them” (People v. Tena, G.R. No. 100909, October 21, 1992)
• “A third party may not be prejudiced by the act, declaration or omission of another.” (People v. Ciobal, G.R. No. 86220, April 20, 1990)
• related to res inter alios acta rule: “This rule provides that the rights of a party cannot be prejudiced by an act, declaration, or omission of another. Consequently, an extrajudicial confession is binding only on the confessant and is not admissible against his or her co-accused because it is considered as hearsay against them.” (People v. Cachuela, G.R. No. 191752, June 10, 2013)
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