Accomplices – refers to the those who are not principals but cooperated in the commission of the crime by previous or simultaneous acts.
a. Legal basis
Article 18. Accomplices. - Accomplices are those persons who, not being included in Article 17, cooperate in the execution of the offense by previous or simultaneous acts.
(Revised Penal Code)
2. Who is an accomplice
[A]n accomplice is “one who knows the criminal design of the principal and cooperates knowingly or intentionally therewith by an act which, even if not rendered, the crime would be committed just the same.” (People v. De Vera, G.R. No. 128966, August 18, 1999, Per Panganiban, J.)
[A]n accomplice is one who knows the criminal design of the principal and cooperates knowingly or intentionally by supplying material or moral aid for the efficacious execution of the crime. (Pascual v. People, G.R. No. 241901, November 25, 2020, Per Inting, J.)
The elements to hold a person liable as an accomplice:
1) Community of design, i.e., knowing the criminal design of the principal by direct participation, he or she concurs the latter in his/her purpose;
2) He or she cooperates in the execution of the offense by previous or simultaneous acts; and
3) There must be a relation between the acts done by the principal and those attributed to the person charged as accomplice. (Pascual v. People , supra.)
1) Community of design
For individuals to be considered as an a...
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