1. Doctrine of qualified political agency
Doctrine of qualified political agency. Under the doctrine of qualified political agency, department secretaries are alter egos or assistants of the President and their acts are presumed to be those of the latter unless disapproved or reprobated by him. (Manubay v. Garilao, G.R. No. 140717, 16 April 2009)
Same; Alter ego doctrine. The doctrine of qualified political agency is also known as the alter ego doctrine. (Manalang-Demigillo v. TIDCORP, En Banc, G.R. Nos. 168613 and 185571, 05 March 2013)
General Rule: The doctrine of qualified political agency essentially postulates that the heads of the various executive departments are the alter egos of the President, and, thus, the actions taken by such heads in the performance of their official duties are deemed the acts of the President. (Ibid.)Exceptions:1) Unless the President himself should disapprove such acts.(Ibid.); or2) Where the Chief Executive is required by the Constitution or law to act in person on the exigencies of the situation demand that he act personally. (Carpio v. Executive Secretary, En Banc, G.R. No. 96409, 14 February 1992)
Exercised by the Presdident in person. There are certain constitutional powers and prerogatives of the Chief Executive of the Nation which must be exercised by him in person and no amount of approval or ratification will validate the exercise of any of those powers by any other person. Such, for instance, is his power to suspend the...
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