1. Presumption of innocence
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved. (Section 14, Article III, 1987 Constitution)
2. Pro reo principle
The fundamental principle in applying and interpreting criminal laws… is to resolve all doubts in favor of the accused. In dubio pro reo. When in doubt, rule for the accused. This is in consonance with the constitutional guarantee that the accused ought to be presumed innocent until and unless his guilt is established beyond reasonable doubt. (J. Corona’s Separate Opinion in People v. Temporada, G.R. No. 173473, ____, citing Section 14 (2), Constitution)
3. Rule of lenity
Intimately intertwined with the in dubio pro reo principle is the rule of lenity. It is the doctrine that “a court, in construing an ambiguous criminal statute that sets out multiple or inconsistent punishments, should resolve the ambiguity in favor of the more lenient punishment.” (Ibid., citing Black’s Law Dictionary, Eighth Edition , p. 1359)
4. Strict interpretation against the State
In case of doubt, penal law is to be construed strictly against the state. (People v. Madrigal, En Banc, G.R. No. L-2873, 28 February 1950)
“Criminal and penal statutes must be strictly construed, that is, they cannot be enlarged or extended by intendment, implication, or by any equitable considerations. In other words, the language cannot be enlarged beyond the ordinary meaning of its terms in order t...
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