Syntax, Statutory Construction

“Under the rules on syntax, the conjunctive word ‘and’ denotes a “joinder or union’ of words, phrases, or clause; it is different from the disjunctive word ‘or’ that signals disassociation or independence. However, a more important rule of statutory construction dictates that laws should be construed in a manner that avoids absurdity or unreasonableness.” (Microsoft Corporation v. Manansala, G.R. No. 166391, October 21, 2015, Per Bersamin, J.)

“[N]egative words and phrases are to be regarded as mandatory while those in the affirmative are merely directory.” (In Re Adoption of the Minors Maria Lualhati Magpayo et al. v. Republic, En Banc, G.R. No. L-5387, Per Montemayor, J.)

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